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Demand Side Management (DSM) refers to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements and service management measures on the side of end users for optimising energy systems overall. This IEA-research programme pushes development of suitable technologies, applications and methods for end users and thus facilitates their preferential adoption in all political decisions on energy policy.
Hybrid energy networks, i.e. the integration of electricity, heat and gas networks, can make a decisive contribution to optimizing the energy system. The IEA DHC Annex TS3 analyses the potentials and challenges of hybrid energy networks from the perspective of the district heating / cooling system. This includes the analysis of relevant technologies and synergies, an assessment of the different methodological approaches and tools, the analysis of case studies as well as the development of suitable business models and regulations.
The aim of the IEA DHC Annex TS4 is to identify the possibilities of digitalization and the integration of digital process for district heating and cooling. To this end, the Annex TS4 establishes a platform for industrial and scientific experts to strengthen international cooperation and networking and the exchange of experience of national research and development activities.
IEA DHC Annex XIII Project 02: MEMPHIS 2.0 - Advanced algorithm for spatial identification, evaluation of temporal availability and economic assessment of waste heat sources and their local representation
The identification and integration of waste heat sources is a key measure towards the decarbonisation district heating networks (DHN). Aim of MEMPHIS 2 is to develop an improved algorithm for identification of different current and future waste heat sources; including time relations of the heat emitted and techno-economic details as well as the further development of the online waste heat explorer.
IEA DHC Annex XIII Project 07: CASCADE - A comprehensive toolbox for integrating low-temperature sub-networks in existing district heating networks
The majority of urban district heating networks operate at high temperatures, which are a barrier to the efficient integration of heat sources such as solar, geothermal, ambient or low temperature waste heat. CASCADE is investigating the integration of low-temperature networks into the return pipe of existing district heating networks, which will reduce return temperatures and thus improve efficiency and increase its capacity to connect new customers.
The TCP on District Heating and Cooling (DHC) was founded in 1983. It deals with the design, performance and operation of DHC and Combined Heat and Power systems as powerful tools for energy conservation and the reduction of environmental impacts of supplying heat.
IEA DSM Task 17 - Extension: Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storages (working period 2013 - 2016)
The aim was to exchange experiences and developments in the field of integrating renewables with the help of DSM in residential and commercial buildings. Technologies like PV systems, electric vehicles, electric storages, heat pumps, micro-CHP in combination with energy management systems (via gateways), and implementing dynamic tariffs using smart meters offer huge potential to increase energy efficiency. Phase 3 of this Task addressed the current role and potential of flexible buildings and their related implied changes and impacts on the grid and markets. The scalability and applicability of successful projects with respect to specific regional differences and requirements was also explored.
IEA DSM Task 17: Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storages
The main objective of the proposed Task is to study how to achieve the optimal integration of distributed generation, energy storages and flexible demand, and thus increase the value of distributed generation and demand response and decrease problems caused by intermittent distributed generation (mainly based on RES) in the physical electricity systems and at the electricity market. The Task deals with distributed energy resources both at local (distribution network and customer) level and at transmission system level where large wind farms are connected.
IEA DSM Task 24: Behaviour Change in DSM – Helping the Behaviour Changers (Working period 2015-2017)
More than 20% of the use of energy for small consumers can be saved by changed behaviours. Past efforts to tap these potentials through DSM-interventions are not effective. The Task 24 dealt with the most important actors groups as well as tools, which support the behaviour changers in their daily work. In addition, an assessment method for DSM-interventions in the frame of the Austrian law on energy efficiency was elaborated.
This task aims at the identification and development of effective business models for energy services, which lead to a sustainable growth of energy efficiency services. Therefore the various national framework conditions and contexts have been analysed, that are necessary for a successful development of such business models. Examples for start-ups and entrepreneurs have been discussed, their challenges and deficits as well as success factors in terms of capabilities/skills identified and out of these findings a web based analysis tool been developed.
IEA EBC Annex 55: Reliability of Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting - Probability Assessment of Performance & Cost (RAP-RETRO)
The scope of the project is to develop and provide decision support data and tools for energy retrofitting measures. The tools will be based on probabilistic methodologies for prediction of energy use, life cycle cost and functional performance. The impact of uncertainty on the performance and costs will be considered. Methods based on probability give powerful tools that can provide us with reliable ranges for the outcome.
The objective of the IEA EBC Annex 56 project was to develop a methodology for cost effective energy and carbon emissions optimization in building renovation. Within the frame of the project this methodology was developed and furthermore also innovative renovation projects were collected and analyzed, which should perform as best practice examples.
IEA EBC Annex 60: New generation computational tools for building and community energy systems based on the Modelica and Functional Mockup Interface standards
The objective was to develop and demonstrate next-generation computational tools that allow building and community energy grids to be designed and operated as integrated systems. The work conducted in Annex 60 has helped to share, further develop and deploy free open-source contributions of previously uncoordinated activities in modeling and simulation, based on the Modelica and Functional Mockup Interface standards.
Target of IEA EBC Annex 61 was the development of technical and economical concepts for Deep Energy Retrofit of public buildings. To force high-quality and energy efficient retrofit, besides the enhancement and dissemination of innovative, technical retrofit concepts, the focus was in the development of innovative business models (energy-contracting).
The main goal of the Annex 62 is to make ventilative cooling an attractive and energy efficient cooling solution to avoid overheating in buildings. Ventilation is already present in buildings through mechanical and/or natural systems and it can remove excess heat gains as well as increase air velocities to widen the thermal comfort range. The results from the Annex facilitate better possibilities for both design purposes and for energy performance calculation.
As part of the "Annex 63" project, Austria has worked with 10 other countries to develop guidelines for the successful implementation of energy strategies at local level. The results include support for nine strategic measures, descriptions of case studies, support materials and recommendations for different target groups.
IEA EBC Annex 64: Optimised Performance of Energy Supply Systems with Exergy Principles (Working period 2014-2018)
To reduce CO2 emissions in cities, an overall understanding of energy conversion processes is necessary, which also takes temperature levels into account. This is particularly important when alternative heat sources such as waste heat, ambient heat, solar and geothermal energy are to be used, as these often have a low temperature level, i.e. a low exergy content. Accordingly, urban energy systems are analysed and optimised within the framework of the IEA EBC Annex 64 with the help of the exergy approach.
Given the considerable implications of occupants' presence and behavior for buildings’ performance, IEA EBC Annex 66 aims to set up a standard occupant behavior definition platform, establish a quantitative simulation methodology to model occupant behavior in buildings, and understand the influence of occupant behavior on building energy use and the indoor environment.
The project increased the knowledge on building Energy Flexibility and the regarding potential buildings can provide to energy grids. The critical aspects and possible solutions to utilize the Energy Flexibility that buildings can provide were identified and a report of the “Principles of Energy Flexible Buildings” will be published in 2019.
It is the aim of Annex 68 to gather and extend the scientific basis and data for a coupled calculation and evaluation of indoor air quality and energy efficiency of residential buildings. Detailed pollutant models will be integrated in energy building simulation to derive design and operational guidelines for energy-efficient buildings.