Indicators for urban areas – for construction, operation and mobility in climate-friendly areas
Starting point / motivation
One central outcome from the project "certification of settlements" was that the optimization of buildings is not sufficient alone to meet the Austrian climate protection goals (Trebut et al., 2014). Therefore it will be necessary to keep the focus of investigation also on settlements. In Switzerland a system for the integral planning, evaluation and quality check of new settlement project is in usage since many years (2000-Watt Site certification). This system could also be suitable for the evaluation of the climate compatibility of Austrian settlements (outcome from the project "potential analysis – 2000 watt site"; Trebut et al., 2016). For that, the adaptation of central elements to the Austrian frameworks would be necessary (e.g. benchmarks, target values, qualitative criteria, organizational structures). A part of the necessary adaptations was implemented within the framework of this project.
Contents and goals
Content of this project was the definition of specific benchmarks and target values for the evaluation of the climate compatibility of new settlements under consideration of the Austrian framework conditions. The values should allow the evaluation of grey energy (energy for manufacture, erection, replacement and disposal of building materials) the evaluation of operational energy (for heating, warm water, ventilation, auxiliary energy, illumination) and the evaluation of the energy used for mobility (mobility in Austria, persons 6 years and older).
The benchmarks and target values were developed top-down (translation of national target values to the level of settlements; basis: national statistics) and bottom-up (what is technical possible; basis: model buildings and mobility survey). Finally, the results were discussed and finalized with Austrian experts.
For the evaluation of settlements it is necessary to define benchmarks and target values for buildings. The values of each building type will be added based on their share of the total area. In general, benchmarks for grey energy, operational energy and mobility and target values for residential buildings, office buildings and school buildings for the indicators primary energy and GHG-Emissions were developed. The target values are based on the scenario "Renewable Energy" (Umweltbundesamt GmbH 2, 2016), and must be reached, if the settlement should be climate compatible. The benchmarks can be exceeded in each category and can be used as orientation.
In the framework of this project, benchmarks were developed that generally allow many of – within the framework of this project evaluated – building material concepts, HVAC concepts and mobility concepts in (rural) areas with a minimum of public transport possibilities (type 24). In this case, the top-down predetermined target values can only be reached if the planned building and mobility concepts will be optimised.
In a next step, also benchmarks were developed that generally allow only zero carbon building materials and HVAC concepts (e.g. district heating, heat pumps) and mobility concepts in (urban) areas with a variety of public transport possibilities (type 92). In this case, the top-down predetermined target values can be reached by the planned building and mobility concepts.
For the planning of settlements it is necessary, to define the general target. If the target is climate compatibility, the target values that are based on the scenario "Renewable Energy", can be used. This target values can be reached, if the optimisation potential will be used in each category.
Prospects / Suggestions for future research
The results allow the evaluation of the climate compatibility of new settlements under consideration of the Austria framework conditions. Experts say that
- the elaborated benchmarks and target values can be used as basis for planning and discussions;
- also the detailed results are helpful for the usage (results of all studies; difference because of method of construction, building technology and the location), because they show the range of possible values in the three kinds of energy use (grey energy, operational energy, mobility) and also for different settlement concepts (singe family houses, apartment buildings, office and school buildings, rural and urban settlements);
- the benchmarks and target values should be implemented in a planning tool, so that different system combinations could be tested out and be used as basis for planning and decisions;
- qualitative criteria and a quality check process should be added to the benchmarks and target values, so that a full and integral planning of settlements is possible.
SIR – Salzburg Institute for Regional Planning and Housing
Project or cooperation partners
- IBO – Austrian Institute for Healthy and Ecological Building
- Research Studios Austria
- Energy Institute Vorarlberg