Product service systems without risk (RISP)

In RISP a process model for the development of product-services is worked out, which consists of seven steps and so called "gates" between the single steps. The questions which have to be answered before entering the gates to the next step are derived from a failure mode and the effect analysis of the single steps.

Short Description




Product Services are considered to be the backbone for a future sustainable economy. Instead of only selling physical products, the use should be provided. RISP (Risk Free Product Services) analyses the question, why sustainable production services are very slowly being accepted on the market and which strategies can oversize to support a quick focused successful implementation of new ideas for product services on the market. Different risks handicap the developer at the introduction of their products. They reduce the acceptance and the economical profit too. These risks and the ability to control these have not been covered in the literature.

The aim of the RISP project was to find a process model for the development of product services. In particular to develop service solutions for the private customer which guarantees, that:

  • a systematic and plant innovation process is followed
  • risks because of definition of the client, definition of the service offered, financing, lack of resources and the legal situation are identified well in advance
  • suitable strategies are developed with regard to the special situation of development product services for small and medium sized enterprises and which are co-ordinated via easy to use portfolios to the situation of the developer

Parallel to all steps the proper technical development of the service, marketing and the consideration of a sustainable economy have to take place. These processes must be strictly from the approximation up to the detail.

Risks and barriers in the steps of the development from the product services have been explored with the research of literature and case studies - especially with the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA).

On the basis of these solutions the gates of the Stage-Gate-Model have been defined. Appropriate questions for the crossing of these gates could be found with the FMEA analysis. For the documentation of the different steps and gates a formula approach could be built.

The RISP process for the development of a service including the models used, the products of the stages and a description of the gates

1. Idea generation

  • Product: Idea of the service
  • Gate: 1.Idea check

2. Identification of the scope

  • Model: Client model
  • Product: Specification
  • Gate: 2. Strategy check

3. Definition of the frame

  • Model: Service model (Process model)
  • Product: Service concept
  • Gate: 3. Visibility check

4. Development of the service

  • Model: Resource model (time and effort)
  • Product: Business plan
  • Gate: 4. Visibility check

5. Test of the service

  • Product: Test plan
  • Gate: 5. Acceptance check

6. Market introduction

  • Product: Market success
  • Gate: 6. Market check

7. Review


This stage gate model was supplied with four case studies.

So a process was developed, which integrates the best available knowledge about effective innovation management, which considered all risks in developing product services, assigns priorities, strategies for governing and generates clear criteria for the progress in a development process. Thus the process and the development from product services can be made more manageable, easier to monitor and easier to teach.

We found out, that workshops are good for learning the use of the RISP model. The systematical use of these complex tools especially at SME´s doesn't make sense without support from instructors. A partly use of the model needs more inputs than it will bring outputs.

Project Partners

Project management

Dr. Johannes Fresner

Project or cooperation partner

  • DI Jürgen Jantschgi
    Außeninstitut der Montanuniversität Leoben
  • DI Mikael P. Henzler
    Adelphi Consult GmbH, Berlin
  • DI Stefan Melnitzky
    ARECON GmbH, Wien
  • Dr. Robert Wimmer
    GrAT - Gruppe Angepasste Technologie, TU Wien
  • Prof. Walter Stahel
    Institut für Produktdauerforschung, Genf

Contact Address

Dr. Johannes Fresner
Geidorfgürtel 21
A-8010 Graz
Tel.: +43 316 367156-0
Fax: +43 316 367156-13