Guideline for logistic systems and resource management for renewable resources in Burgenland
The starting position of this project was characterized by two different facts: on the one hand, there are huge amounts of unused wood that cannot be mobilized at the moment due to very small structured forest areas. On the other hand, in the past years biomass demand in Burgenland has raised significantly, due to the law for green electricity as well as the erection of big biomass plants. Logistic structures were not able to keep up with this rising biomass demand.
Thus the aim of the project was to investigate, whether the amount of wood in the forests of Burgenland is big enough for the supply of all interest groups and to develop according concepts for logistics.
Thus, important contents of the project were an analysis of the existing and future biomass demand in Burgenland as well as the investigation of the available resource potentials - theoretical potential and potential able to be taken. Based on that analysis, general logistic alternatives were developed for small structured forest areas, short rotation plants and agriculture. Subsequently concrete logistic concepts were derived for individual regions.
Following results could be achieved in the project: The theoretical biomass potential from forests in Burgenland amounts to about 1.214.331 scm respectively 3.568.653 MWh per year. The identification of the theoretical agricultural potential was based on available arable land and grassland and represents approximately 3.377.745 tons respectively 101.322.324 MWh per year. The theoretical potential from short rotation plants - under consideration of arable land - amounts to approximately 2.141.905 tons respectively 64.257.156 MWh per year. Anyhow, it has to be considered that the theoretical potentials from agriculture and short rotation plants are overlapping. Additionally, the reeds around the Neusiedler See were investigated as another - eye-catching - resource in Burgenland. From that area a theoretical potential of about 100.000 tons respectively 400.000 MWh could be gained per year.
Regarding the potential able to be taken from the forests, parcels of forest land were divided into different magnitudes that can be machined more or less difficult. The increment was allocated to those areas and confronted with the amounts of felling. The potential of primary energy able to be taken amounts from 667.000 to 825.000 MWh per year. The potential of primary energy able to be taken from short rotation plants was calculated based on production areas in Burgenland and shadowy arable land and represents about 160.000 MWh per year. As an alternative for the use of woody biomass, the use of biomass from arable and grassland was investigated. Biogas substrates from actual available grassland are able to deliver up to 169.000 MWh of primary energy per year. Medium term, by the use of 25% of arable land for the production of biogas substrates approximately 1.200.000 MWh could be provided per year. The potential able to be taken from the reeds amounts to about 36.000 tons respectively 144.000 MWh per year. As with the energetic use of grassland, also the potential of primary energy from arable land is much easer to be taken than the potential of primary energy from the forests. For the latter, in the forests of the Northern part of the county Burgenland there are potentials that can be taken more easily. In the districts Oberpullendorf, Güssing and Jennersdorf the potentials are hardly accessible. In the district Oberwart, despite of big reserves, the potential that can be taken seems to be outspent.
The existing and the future demand of biomass in Burgenland was determined by a survey of existing and planned plants (based on the resource wood respectively biogas). The existing demand of wood amounts to about 463.526 loose cubic meter respectively 681.099 MWh per year, the future demand is estimated with 1.001,026 loose cubic meter respectively 1.248.699 MWh. The current biomass demand from agriculture can be numbered with 92.941 tons respectively 93.941 MWh per year, the future demand with 168.041 tons respectively 171.254 MWh.
Present and future requirements regarding logistics were surveyed and elaborated as well. In the case of the resource wood it can be seen that the current demand already exceeds the supply. Reserves can only be found on areas that are not able to be taken at present. Mobilization of woody resources is one of the most essential logistic requirements. For biomass from agriculture, there is quite enough potential available for further plants. Regarding logistic structures alternatives for small structured forest areas, short rotation plants and biogas respectively agriculture were developed within the project.
As solution for small structured forest area temporary and permanent forest management associations were suggested. Both alternatives plan with a common forest management of different parcels of forest land, which differ regarding forest management, financing/accounting and organization.
The model of permanent forest management associations was adapted to the region Leithaberg - St. Georgen - Eisenstadt and was already partly implemented.
At first, short rotation plants were investigated in general as well. Then, the results were applied to the region Südburgenland. This concept especially considers ground water areas along the rivers and burns in the region, that are currently fit for agricultural use. Also in this case it would be necessary to establish areas that can be managed commonly. By the use of those areas, seven percent of the wood demand in Burgenland could be met. Besides, a renaturation and decongestion of landscape along the rivers and burns could take place.
For agricultural resources for biogas production general investigations regarding cultivation and harvesting of biogas substrates, parcels and production costs were made and based on that alternatives for logistics - free farm track, free silo, free fermenter- were analysed. A concrete concept was developed for the planned biogas plant in Güssing.
The different logistic alternatives were evaluated and compared with each other by means of benefit analysis. According to the weighting of different factors the two forest management associations for small structured forest areas as well as the alternatives for biogas "free farm track" and "free silo" can be prioritized. Additionally, the different alternatives were simulated regarding there impact in the long run.
After the end of the project it will be tried to implement the different concepts. The implementation of the concept for small structured forest areas has already started during the project time.
Mag.a Christiane Brunner
Europäisches Zentrum für erneuerbare Energie Güssing GmbH
Project or cooperation partner
- Bioenergie Burgenland Service GmbH
- Burgenländischer Waldverband GmbH
- Renet - Kompetenzknoten Güssing Forschungsinstitut für erneuerbare Energie GmbH
- BEGAS - Wärme & Service GmbH